BACKGROUND: In female cancer survivors, the accelerated loss of primordial follicles as a result of gonadal damage may lead to premature ovarian failure (POF). However, the extent of the damage is unpredictable. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) constitutes a sensitive marker of ovarian reserve. Serum AMH levels were measured to assess sub-clinical ovarian damage in patients treated with gonadotoxic therapy. METHODS: In 25 patients with haematological malignancies, serum AMH concentrations were measured prior to and after cancer therapy and were compared with normo-ovulatory controls. RESULTS: In all patients, AMH concentrations were lower than controls prior to treatment. Thirteen patients were treated with multi-drug chemotherapy. Although in most patients treated with chemotherapy menstrual cyclicity was restored, median serum AMH levels were lower than in controls. Twelve patients had stem cell transplantation (SCT) after total body irradiation. They all developed POF and their serum AMH concentrations were undetectable. CONCLUSIONS: Female cancer survivors treated with SCT all developed POF. Hence, in these patients fertility preservation should be considered. In patients treated with chemotherapy, ovarian reserve seems to be compromised as well.