We examined trends in the incidence and mortality, and described the survival of patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2006. On the basis of nationwide population-based data, 3-year moving average European age-standardized incidence and 10-year relative survival estimates were calculated. Penile squamous cell carcinomas were categorized according to stage grouping based on the TNM classification. In the 17-year study period, 2000 primary penile cancers were diagnosed in the Netherlands of which 1883 (94%) were squamous cell carcinomas. Median age at diagnosis was 68 years. The majority of patients (57%) were diagnosed with localized tumors (Stage 0 or I). The percentage of missing disease characteristics increased with increasing age. The 3-year moving average incidence rate of patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma increased significantly from 1.4 per 100,000 person-years in 1989 to 1.5 in 2006 with an estimated annual percentage of change of 1.3%. Ten-year relative survival of patients according to the different stage groups was 93% for Stage 0, 89% for Stage I, 81% for Stage II, the 9-year survival was 50% for patients with Stage III disease and a 2-year survival of 21% for patients was found for Stage IV disease. Our study shows that the incidence rate of penile squamous cell carcinoma in the Netherlands has increased slightly, especially the incidence of carcinomas in situ. Patients with Stage III and IV tumors have poor survival.