PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiological imaging has a crucial role in pulmonary evaluation in cystic fibrosis (CF), having been shown to be more sensitive than pulmonary function testing at detecting structural lung changes. The present review summarizes the latest published information on established and evolving pulmonary imaging techniques for assessing people with this potentially life-limiting disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Chest computed tomography (CT) has taken over the predominant role of chest radiography in many centres for the initial assessment and surveillance of CF lung disease. However, several emerging techniques offer a promising means of pulmonary imaging using less ionizing radiation. This is of particular importance given these patients tend to require repeated imaging throughout their lives from a young age. Such techniques include ultra-low-dose CT, tomosynthesis, dynamic radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, deep-learning algorithms are anticipated to improve diagnostic accuracy. SUMMARY: The recent introduction of triple-combination CF transmembrane regulator therapy has put further emphasis on the need for sensitive methods of monitoring treatment response to allow for early adaptation of treatment regimens in order to limit irreversible lung damage. Further research is needed to establish how emerging imaging techniques can contribute to this safely and effectively.
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