Vitamin D Deficiency may be an Independent Risk Factor for Arterial Disease

Koen Luijtgaarden, Michiel Voûte, Sanne Hoeks, Erik Jan Bakker, M Chonchol, Robert jan Stolker, Ellen Rouwet, Hence Verhagen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status in patients with occlusive or aneurysmatic arterial disease in relation to clinical cardiovascular risk profiles and markers of atherosclerotic disease. Methods: We included 490 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD, n = 254) or aortic aneurysm (n = 236). Cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and vitamin D were assessed. Patients were categorised into severely (<= 25 nmol I-1) or moderately (26-50 nmol I-1) vitamin D deficient, vitamin D insufficient (51-75 nmol I-1) or vitamin D sufficient (>75 nmol I- Results: Overall, 45% of patients suffered from moderate or severe vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was similar in patients with PAD and those with an aortic aneurysm. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with congestive heart failure and cerebrovascular disease. Adjusting for clinical cardiovascular risk factors, multivariable regression analyses showed that low vitamin D status was associated with higher CIMT (P = 0.001), lower ABI (P < 0.001) and higher hs-CRP ( Conclusions: The current study shows a strong association between low vitamin D status and arterial disease, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and irrespective of the type of vascular disease, that is, occlusive or aneurysmatic disease. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of European Society for Vascular Surgery.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)301-306
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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